She has taught in K for more than 15 years, and higher education for ten years. Log in or sign up to add this lesson to a Custom Course. Log in or Sign up. Remember the song for learning your ABC's? The English language is an alphabetic system of writing. Unlike other languages that use a symbol to represent parts of words or even whole words, the English alphabetic system uses a set of letters, some of which represent consonant sounds and other vowel sounds.
Why do students find it difficult to read and listen in a second language? Reading and Listening are both receptive skills, but the difficulties faced by students when reading or listening to a text vary. In listening, this does not happen - once the content is said, it is gone! Written text is generally more standardised than spoken text - although there might be differences in spelling, vocabulary , and even use of grammar depending on where you are, spoken English is much more varied than written English. Accents and regionalisms are definitely more present in oral speech, and these may pose difficulties in comprehension.
Learning to read is one of the most critical skills students must obtain during early childhood education. Reading skills set the foundation for overall academic success. There are several ways to approach reading instruction, and educators often rely on several reading theories. Students in grades kindergarten through third grade are learning to read. From fourth grade on, students make a significant shift, and they are then reading to learn.
The way in which we process and therefore understand written and spoken texts is often described as either top-down or bottom-up. In our first language, we probably make use primarily of top-down processing. Our previous experience of watching TV news gives us some knowledge and expectations from which to make predictions about the likely content, as well as the style of language that will likely be used by presenters and journalists.